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Chenopodium quinoa Willd (pronounced li) is a plant of the genus Chenopodium in the family Chenopodium. Panicle can be red, purple, yellow, plant shape similar to gray gray vegetables, mature panicle similar to sorghum. Plant size is greatly influenced by environmental and genetic factors, ranging from 0.3 to 3 m. The stem texture is hard and can be branched. The leaves are simple and alternate, the leaves are duck palm shape, and the leaf margins are divided into whole and serrated. Quinoa flowers bisexual, inflorescences umbrella-like, spikelike, conical, quinoa seeds smaller, small round drug flake, 1.5-2 mm in diameter, 1000 grain weight 1.4-3 grams.
Native to the Andes mountains of South America, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and other high altitude mountains. It has a certain tolerance to drought, cold and salt, and the growth range is about sea level to 4500 meters above sea level on the plateau, and the most suitable height is 3000-4000 meters above sea level on the plateau or mountain areas.
Quinoa is rich in vitamins, polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, and phytosterols with various health benefits. Quinoa has high protein, unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 83% of its fat, or a kind of low fructose low glucose food, can play a beneficial effect in the process of sugar and lipid metabolism.
Quinoa is highly nutritious and is also considered a high-protein "grain." Quinoa seeds contain significantly more protein, both in quality and quantity, than regular grains. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has also affirmed that quinoa's nutritional value is comparable to that of whole milk powder. Quinoa contains more lysine (an amino acid that is scarce in most vegetables) than wheat, and the amino acid composition of quinoa seeds is similar to casein, which is balanced regardless of the nutritional intake of humans or other animals.
Quinoa is low in sodium, higher in minerals like calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, copper and zinc than wheat, barley and corn, and up to five grams of fiber. It is particularly high in iron, with about 8 milligrams in a half-cup, the highest of any cereal.
i.Pure natural, rare and precious, rich in complete protein;
ii.It is rich in 20 amino acids including 9 essential amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in perfect proportion;
iii.Rich in Vb, Ve, Vc and other vitamins;
iv.Rich in heart-healthy fatty acids called omega-3;
v.In mineral nutrition, manganese, potassium, iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus and other contents are rich;
vi.Rich in dietary fiber;
vii.Gluten-free, easy to absorb;
viii.Low calorie, 0 cholesterol, contains phytoestrogens, can reduce blood pressure, glucose, lipid.
ix.It has the function of promoting growth and development and improving immunity.
x.Potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and other elements are relatively high, so it is suitable for the elderly, low phosphorus, low potassium or hypertensive people to eat;
xi.Contains rich dietary fiber, can relieve constipation, maintain intestinal health.
Content of protein, starch, adipose, vitamin, mineral in quinoa grain is higher than general grain, with the basic material demand of human life activity perfect match. The most important thing is that quinoa contains rich polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, lectin and other active ingredients, can prevent and treat diseases, so quinoa is not only a kind of health food, but also a kind of safe food.
Polyphenols are bioactive secondary metabolites of plants and widely exist in plant-derived foods.
There are three main types of polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids and catechins:
Total phenolic content, soluble phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Quinoa, Amaranth and Amaranth were determined by Repo-Carrasco-Valencia et al. The total phenolic content ranged from 16.8 to 59.7 mg/100 g, and the proportion of soluble phenolic acid ranged from 7% to 61%. Polyphenols showed strong antioxidant activity in vitro.
Zhu et al. isolated and identified 6 flavonol glycosides, 4 kaempferol glycosides and 2 quercetin glycosides from quinoa. In quinoa seeds, kaempferol 3-O-[β-D-furanal (1-2)] -β-D-galactose-picanthracene (kaempferol3-O-[β-D-apiofuranosyl(1- '2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside), kaempferol3-O-[2, 6-DI-α-l-pyranrhamnoside] -β-d-galactothracene and quercetin 3-O-[2, 6-DI-α-L-pyranrhamnoside] -β-D-galactiose picanthracene ( kaempferol3-O-[2, 6-DI-α-L-rhamnopyranoside] -β-d-Galactopyranoside) and quercetin 3-O-[2, 6-bi-α-l-pyranoside] -β-d-galactose picanthracene (quercetin) 3-O-[2, 6-DI-α-L-rhamnopyranoside] -β-D-Galactopyranoside) is the major flavonoid glycoside.
Gorinstein et al. reported that the content of ferulic acid, β-coumaric acid and caffeic acid in quinoa was 251.5 μg/g, 0.8 μg/g and 6.31 μg, respectively.
Ketones have antioxidant activity and are inhibitors of certain enzymes and relaxants of smooth muscle.
There are nine main categories of flavonoids:
Flavonoids and flavonols, dihydroflavonoids and dihydroflavonols, isoflavones and dihydroisoflavones, chalerones and dihydrochalerones, orange ketones, anthocyanins and flavanols, diflavones hydrochalerones, orange ketones, anthocyanins and flavanols.
Quinoa has a high flavonoid content, ranging from 36.2 to 144.3mg/100g. Quinoa has higher content of rutin, quercetin, isoquercetin and kaempferol than buckwheat, while other grains such as millet, rice and corn do not contain flavonoids.
Hrose et al. analyzed four kinds of flavonoid glycosides by HPLC and found that the flavonoid content of different varieties was very different, especially quercetin and kaempferol. The quercetin content of Japanese quinoa varieties was 150-220umol/100g, about three times that of common varieties, and much higher than that of South American quinoa and domestic quinoa varieties.
Saponins have a wide range of physiological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-cytotoxic.
The seed coat of quinoa contains lectin, which is a non-enzyme, non-antibody binding glycoprotein, and the most suitable PH is between 7-9. The lectin in the seed coat of South American quinoa has coagulation effect. D-galactose and L-rhamnose have inhibitory effect on the coagulation of coagulant hormone, especially D-galactose.
Quinoa is not only nutrient-rich food crops, or a kind of medical food homologous food, has very high nutritional medicinal and health care value.
Many active components in quinoa extract have antioxidant effects, and polyphenols are the main antioxidant substances.
Pasko et al. analyzed the positive correlation between polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in quinoa grains and shoots. This is because polyphenolic compounds can become free radical acceptors and block free radical chain reactions. And metal to form chelate, inhibit metal oxidation. Most phenolic compounds in food are in the form of esters, glycosides or polymers that cannot be eaten directly. These polyphenols must be hydrolyzed by intestinal enzymes or degraded by bacteria in the intestine before they can be absorbed by the human body. However, about 80% of the total polyphenolic compounds in quinoa still have biological activities in vitro.
Gawlik et al. analyzed that ferulic acid, sinapic acid, gallic acid, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rutin in quinoa leaf extract could inhibit the activity of fatty acid enzymes, hinder the communication connection between cells and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Kuo et al. verified the antioxidant effect of quinoa by measuring the inhibition degree of hemoglobin peroxidation of linoleic acid by quinoa extract. Quinoa is rich in selenium, an essential component of glutathione, an enzyme that also scavenge free radicals.
Dietary flavonoids are beneficial to health. They have anti-inflammatory activity, especially quercetin and its glycosides in flavonoid compounds, which have anti-inflammatory, thirst-quenching and expectorant effects.
In vitro experiments by Formica & Regelson showed that flavonoids have a variety of biological activities, including inducing apoptosis, anti-mutagenesis, inhibiting the activities of protein kinase C superoxide dismutase and lipoxygenase, and blocking the release of histamine. Saponins are also major anti-inflammatory substances, mainly composed of four compounds Q30, Q50, Q70 and Q90. All four compounds can inhibit macrophages from producing harmful metabolites NO, TNF-α and IL-6, among which Q50 has the highest anti-inflammatory activity.
Woldemichael and Wink isolated and identified at least 16 saponins from quinoa seeds by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. These compounds and monosaccharide saponins had hemolytic activity and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, respectively. The antifungal activity of quinoa is also enhanced by alkaline treatment, because alkali-treated saponins can damage cell membranes. Flores et al. have isolated and identified two oleanolic acid saponins, oleanolic acid (1) and deoxychlorotic acid (2), as well as two derived oleanolic acids, 28-o-xylic acid (28-O-xylic acid) and 3-O-acetyloleanolic aid. Oleanolic acid (1) is a valuable secondary metabolite with a variety of pharmacological activities and has been commercially produced in China as a drug for the treatment of liver diseases.
iii.Reduce blood sugar and lose weight
Quinoa is a low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-starch food. Regular consumption of quinoa will not only reduce the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, but also have a weight loss effect. Quinoa is rich in magnesium, manganese, zinc, iron, calcium, potassium, selenium, copper, phosphorus and other mineral elements, which act as inhibitors or activators of certain enzymes to regulate blood sugar levels in the body.
For example, β-glucosidase promotes cellulose degradation and glucose utilization. Mn2+ and Co2+ are β-glucosidase activators. Feeding quinoa can increase β-glucosidase activity and reduce blood glucose. Quinoa is rich in isoflavones and vitamin E combination to help blood circulation to soften blood vessels, promote sugar, lipid metabolism and insulin secretion to reduce blood glucose. Ruales and Nair reported that the total dietary fiber content of quinoa was 13.4%, of which 11.0% was non-soluble fiber and 2.4% was soluble fiber. Both types of fiber are important for regulating blood sugar levels, lowering cholesterol and protecting the heart. Volume OF cooked quinoa grain increases 3-4 times, can reduce feed intake, and the dietary fiber that quinoa is rich in bibulous ability is strong, satiate feeling is had after ingestion, have action reducing weight.